Kwheeler
Dr. Katy Wheeler is a Lecturer in Sociology at The University of Essex. She has extensive experience of conducting qualitative interviews, including household interviews, expert interviews, and focus groups. Her research interests are in the fields of sustainability and consumption and she has published widely within leading academic journals and two books, Fair-Trade and the Citizen-Consumer: Shopping for Justice (Palgrave, 2012) and Recycling and Consumption Work: Social and moral economies (Palgrave, 2015). She is currently pursuing projects on sustainability and consumer education.

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Dr. Bethany Morgan Brett is a Senior Lecturer in Psychosocial Studies at The University of East London. She worked for nine years at the UK Data Archive and so specialises in secondary analysis, social research methods, archiving, and research data management. Her publications and academic research interests are in the field of sociology of the life-course, ageing, intergenerational relationships, psychoanalysis and psychosocial studies. Her current research is The Impossible Choice Project, which is exploring how people make decisions of care for and with older parents.

Course Content: This course aims to introduce participants to the most widely used qualitative research technique in the social sciences – the interview. The course is intended to systematically guide participants through the research process specific to a qualitative interview project, from research design through to conducting interviews, analysing them and writing up the findings. The course will focus on different types of qualitative interview – including in-depth interviews, psycho-social/sensitive interviews, expert interviews and focus group interviews. We reflect on the different techniques at an interviewer’s disposal to encourage participants to share their stories and reflexively discuss how interactions between interviewer and interviewee shape the data that is generated. This is a practical course and participants will gain first-hand experience of conducting and analysing qualitative interviews of different types, as well as critically reflecting upon their own interviewing practice (assumptions and techniques). There will be space for participants to bring their questions about, and previous experience with, interviews to the course for group discussion.

The course begins with an overview of the key principles and theoretical assumptions underlying the qualitative interview before moving onto the practicalities of setting up an interview research project. Participants are asked to collectively devise an interview guide, test out this guide and then conduct an in-depth interview with another summer school participant. Specific techniques/tools for approaching sensitive topics and dealing with elite interviewees are then considered. Psychosocial and focus group interviews are introduced as special categories of qualitative interview and participants have the opportunity to experience both of these approaches through practical exercises. Using the qualitative data analysis software MAXQDA, we introduce techniques for analysing interview data before we conclude the course with top tips on writing up interview research.

Course objectives: The aim of this course is to equip participants with the skills and confidence to conduct their own research projects using qualitative interviews. The course is particularly well-suited for participants who are at the beginning of their research, but it will also appeal to those who are already using qualitative interviews and are seeking to deepen their knowledge and skills (perhaps in terms of how to ask the right questions and deal with difficult or sensitive topics/participants). By the end of the course, participants should understand the principles behind and practicalities of doing a research project based on qualitative interviews.

Course prerequisites
No prior knowledge or experience of qualitative interviewing is assumed.

Required texts
Rubin, H. & Rubin, I. (2012) Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, London: Sage.

Representative Background Reading
Barbour, R. (2014) Introducing Qualitative Research: A student’s guide, London: Sage

Bloor, M., Frankland, J., Thomas, M., and Robson, K. (2000) Focus Groups in Social Research. London: Sage.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2013) Successful Qualitative Research: a practical guide for beginners, London: Sage.

Hollway, W. & Jefferson, T. (2013) Doing Qualitative research differently: a psychosocial approach, London: Sage.

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2014). InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching. 2nd edition, London: Sage

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J. Nicholls, C. & Ormston, R. (eds.) (2013) Qualitative Research Practice, 2nd Edition. London: Sage

Week 1

Day 1: Introduction to Qualitative Interviews
• Welcome and introduction to the course
• Icebreaker: The art of active listening
• The principles and epistemology of qualitative interviews
• Group discussion of key expectations for the course

Day 2: Planning your qualitative interviewing project
• Practicalities of conducting qualitative research, focusing on issues of ethics, safety and consent
• Sampling and recruiting participants
• Practical exercises
o Ethics case studies
o Setting up a qualitative interview project and planning a sampling strategy

Day 3: The in-depth qualitative interview and designing an interview guide
• Different types of qualitative interview
• Key qualitative interviewing skills
• Designing interview guides.
• Practical exercises:
o Learning from others’ interviews guides
o Designing interview guides in small groups and pilot testing
o Follow-up: Set-up and conduct an interview to be completed by Day 7

Day 4: Interviewing skills for different types of participants and situations and transcribing your interview
• Power and the interview process (expert and elite interviews)
• Vulnerable populations
• Using observational techniques in the qualitative interview
• Transcribing interviews and anonymisation
• Practical exercises:
o Critically engaging with secondary qualitative interview transcripts
o Mini observation

Day 5: Focus groups
• When to use Focus groups
• Key practical considerations of running a focus group
• Moderating skills
• Practical exercises:
o Running or participating within mini-focus groups

Week 2

Day 6: Sensitive Interviews, narrative and psychosocial interviews
• Free association narrative interviews
• Introduction to the biographical narrative interview method
• Practical exercises:
o Psycho-social interviewing practical and discussion

Day 7: Reflecting on the research process
• Judging the quality of your interviews
• Practical exercises:
o Evaluating your own interviews
o Repeat interviews with a class member in light of what they have learned

Day 8: Introduction to the analysis of qualitative data
• Key principles of qualitative data analysis
• Coding and thematic analysis
• Practical exercises:
o Devise an index to guide coding and analysis of own interview

Day 9: Using Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) package MAXQDA
• Practical exercises:
o Introduction to coding using MAXQDA
o Using MAXQDA to analyse your own interview

Day 10: Writing up your findings and course close
• How to write up qualitative research for different audiences
• Practical exercises:
o Critical appraisal of a qualitative interview journal article
o Reflection on course expectations
o One to one surgery for students to discuss any outstanding concerns/questions they may have

Required reading – This book will be provided by the Summer School as part of your course material.

Rubin, H. & Rubin, I. (2012) Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data, London: Sage.

Further Reading

Barbour, R. (2014) Introducing Qualitative Research: A student’s guide, London: Sage

Bloor, M., Frankland, J., Thomas, M., and Robson, K. (2000) Focus Groups in Social Research. London: Sage

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2013) Successful Qualitative Research: a practical guide for beginners, London: Sage.

Holliday, A. (2016) Doing and Writing Qualitative Research, London: Sage

Hollway, W. & Jefferson, T. (2013) Doing Qualitative research differently: a psychosocial approach, London: Sage.

Gubrium, J. et al. (eds) (2012) The Sage Handbook of Interview Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Keats, D. (2000) Interviewing. A Practical Guide for Students and Professionals. Buckingham: Open University Press

Kvale, S. & Brinkmann, S. (2014). InterViews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage

Lewins, A and Silver, C (2007) Using software in qualitative research – a step-by-step guide. London: Sage

Lyon, D., Morgan-Brett, B. and Crow, G. (2012) ‘ Working with material from the Sheppey archive’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(4) [Special Issue: Perspectives on working with archived textual and visual material in social research], pp.301-309.

Morgan, D.L. (1997) Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. London: Sage

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching. 2nd edition, London: Sage

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J. Nicholls, C. & Ormston, R. (eds.) (2013) Qualitative Research Practice, 2nd Edition. London: Sage

Silverman, D. (2009) Doing Qualitative Research London: Sage.