Andrea Rossi is the former Director of the Harvard Measurement and Human Rights Programme at Harvard Kennedy School of Government (USA) and currently works as Head of Social Policy and Research for the United Nations in Mozambique. Previously he was a United Nations officer in Nepal, New York and Research Coordinator at the UNICEF Innocenti Research Center.
He is an economist with a particular focus on development and applied research. He coordinated research projects in Africa, Latin America, Asia and Europe, as well as developing specific research methodologies on children’s issues. He has previously worked for the International Labour Organization in the East Africa Area Office, Tanzania where he was in charge of research and statistics. His main areas of interest are applied research methodology; combining qualitative and quantitative methods; applied micro econometrics; and participatory approaches. He has conducted research on human rights, child labour and child trafficking, prostitution, homeless people, undocumented migrants, refugees and displaced people.
Course Content Focussing on Hard-to-Reach populations, the course provides an introduction to research methods in conducting research, both qualitative and quantitative, on marginal, hidden and excluded population such as children, migrants, refugees and displaced people, sex workers, homeless, victims of conflicts or trafficking, HIV/AIDS, and drug users. Aimed to promote action-oriented research, the course introduces the main theories and research approaches on exclusion and marginalization using different frameworks and techniques. It addresses the dangers associate with the lack of systematic use of solid research methodology, ethics, data collection and analysis in the formulation and evaluation of policies and programs.
Course Objectives The course aims to enable participants to undertake empirical research with marginal and hidden populations, and seeks to encourage participants to develop methodological strategies for the collection and analysis of such data.
The course will provide tools to address key issues such as the lack of known sampling frame, the difficulties in reaching the target group; the concepts of impact, attribution and contribution; and the political dimension of research findings. The course explores topics such as estimation and sampling techniques; participatory research; evidence-based policy versus policy-based evidence; innovation, crowdsourcing and the use of technology; the art of combining qualitative and quantitative methods; and ethical considerations arising when conducting research with hidden and marginalized populations. It covers quantitative techniques such as adaptive cluster sampling, capture and recapture, RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), network analysis, as well as participatory research methods.
Course Prerequisites Basic knowledge in research methods and design. An interest in the topic and some practical research experience, or an acquaintance with applied research, would be helpful.
Schedule: One week, full time course (35 h) Class times: 10:00 – 13:30 and 14:15 – 17:45
Course Outline: Focussing on Hard-to-Reach populations, the course provides an introduction to research methods in conducting research, both qualitative and quantitative, on marginal, hidden and excluded population such as children, migrants, sex workers, homeless, victims of conflicts or trafficking, HIV/AIDS, drug addicted, refugees and displaced people1. Aimed to promote action-oriented research, the course introduces the main theories and research approaches on exclusion and marginalization using different frameworks and techniques. It addresses the dangers associate with the lack of systematic use of solid research methodology, data collection and analysis in the formulation and evaluation of policies and programs.
The course will provide tools to address key issues such as the lack of known sampling frame, the difficulties in reaching the target group; the concepts of impact, attribution and contribution; and the political dimension of research findings. The course explores topics such as: estimation and sampling techniques; participatory research; evidence-based policy versus policy-based evidence; innovation, crowdsourcing and the use of technology; the art of combining qualitative and quantitative methods; and ethical considerations arising when conducting research with hidden and marginalized populations
Provisional Structure: This intensive course is structured in morning and afternoon sessions. The course brings together academics (PhD and masters students) and practitioners (from NGOs, UN and International Organizations), creating a unique opportunity for experience sharing and methodological cross-fertilization. Participants will be encouraged to present their past/ongoing/future work to be used and discussed during the course. Combining both taught and practical sessions, the main emphasis of the course is on acquiring practical skills in doing research.
The following is a provisional list of methods and issues to be addressed during the course and it will be adapted according to participants’ needs and capacity: • Hard to reach populations: concepts, definitions, and data collection implications • Cluster sampling; Adaptive cluster sampling • Capture and Recapture applied to social research • Multiple Source Estimate – • Respondent Driven Sampling RDS (intro) • Social network analysis applied to hard-to-reach populations • Participatory Research Methods • Online survey and use of social media to reach hard-to reach populations • Innovation and the use of technology: SMS, crowd sourcing and mapping • Policy implication and impact assessment • Research Ethics
Program The following is a provisional structure of the course and it will be adapted according to participants’ needs and capacity.
DAY 1 CONCEPTS, QUESTIONS, AND ACTION 1.1 Hard to reach populations: concepts, definitions, and data collection implications 1.2 Applied research and basic research: linkages, opposition, challenges and opportunities 1.3 Evidence-Based Policy vs Policy-Based Evidence
Research methods: Impact drawing (introduction); stakeholders analysis; on-line (web) surveys and questionnaires design (introduction), sensitive questions in surveys on hard to reach populations i.e. Randomize Response Technique (introduction), Item count technique (introduction), and three card method (introduction).
DAY 2 /3: QUANTITATIVE METHODS 2.1 The quest of assessing the magnitude: sampling and estimating hard-to-reach populations •Guesstimate and scientific estimation; random and purposive sampling; bias. •Cluster sampling; Adaptive cluster sampling •Time location sampling •Capture and recapture •Respondent Driven Sampling RDS (intro) •Social network analysis applied to hard-to-reach populations (introduction) 2.2 Case study: The Politics of Numbers Case: Estimating civilian casualties in Iraq: the struggle between statistics and politics
DAY 3 QUALITATIVE METHODS, AND PARTICIPATION 3.1 Participatory research •Participatory research methods •Rapid assessment •KAP (Knowledge Attitude and Practice) •Positive deviance
Applied methods for participatory research: timeline, chapati (Venn) diagrams; transect walk; wealth ranking; seasonal calendar; community mapping
DAY 4 INNOVATION AND ETHICS 4.1 Innovation and the use of technology: SMS, crowd sourcing and mapping – Using SMS and mobile phones for research and data collection – Crowdsourcing and mapping: Ushahidi (introduction) 4.2 Ethical consideration in doing research with marginal population – “To do it, or not to do it? That is the question”
DAY 5 REAL CASE SCENARIO: 5.1 Combining research methods Students will use all the techniques presented during the course in a real case. Bibliography
A copy of all the articles in the bibliography will be provided during the course
Bibliography Day 1 Hedrick, Terry Elizabeth, Leonard Bickman and Debra J. Rog. Applied Research Design: A Practical Guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1993.
Kish, L. “A Taxonomy of elusive populations.” Journal of Official Statistics Vol. 7, No. 3 (1991), pp. 339-347.
Doherty, Paul, Alison Stott and Kay Kinder. “Delivering Services to Hard to Reach Families in On Track Areas: Definition, Consultation and Needs Assessment.”
Duncan, David F., John B. White and Thomas Nicholson. “Using internet-based surveys to reach hidden populations: Case of non-abusive illicit drug users.” American Journal of Health Behaviour Vol. 27 No. 3 (2003), pp. 208-218.
Bibliography Day 2 Seymour Sudman, Sirken, Monroe G.; Charles D. Cowan. “Sampling Rare and Elusive Populations”. Science, New Series, Vol. 240, No. 4855. (May 20, 1988), pp. 991-996
Neugebauer R, Wittes J . “Voluntary and Involuntary Capture-Recapture. Samples- Problems in the Estimation of Hidden and Elusive Populations”. American Journal of Public Health. 1994 July; 84(7): 1068–1069
Gurgel, R. Q., J.D.C. da Fonseca, D. Neyra-Castañeda, G.V. Gill, and L.E. Cuevas. “Capture-recapture to estimate the number of street children in a city in Brazil.” Archives of Disease in Childhood 89 (2004), pp. 222-224.
Blair, A, Johnny. “Probability Sample of Gay Urban Males: The Use of Two-Phase Adaptive Sampling”. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, Methods of Inquiry about Sex: New Advances. (Feb., 1999), pp. 39-44
Hanson, G.H, “Illegal Migration from Mexico to the United States”, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XLIV, (2006) 869-924. Available online: http://goo.gl/RWX0W
Salganik, M.J. and D.D. Heckathorn. “Sampling and Estimation in Hidden Populations Using Respondent-Driven Sampling.” Sociological Methodology 34 (2004), pp.193-239.
Burnham, Gilbert, R. Lafta, S. Doocy, and L. Roberts. “Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey.” The Lancet. October 11, 2006. Available online: http://goo.gl/IxeO9 UNICEF. MICS Manual. UNICEF 2005 Available online: http://goo.gl/zSrae
Bibliography Day 3 Chambers, Robert. “Notes for Participants in PRA-PLA, Familiarisation Workshops, IDS.” (2006) Available online at: http://goo.gl/JrIrn
Zimmerman, Cathy, and Charlotte Watts. “WHO ethical and safety recommendations for interviewing trafficked women.” World Health Organization (2003). Available online: http://goo.gl/QdKms
Molyneuxa, C.S., N. Peshua, and K. Marsha. “Understanding of informed consent in a low-income setting: three case studies from the Kenyan coast.” Social Science & Medicine 59 (2004), pp. 2547–2559.
Feldman, H.W., and M.R. Aldrich. “The Role of Ethnography in Substance Abuse Research and Public Policy: Historical Precedent and Future Prospects,” in The Collection and Interpretation of
Data from Hidden Populations. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research 98 (1990). Available online: : http://goo.gl/pSKFy
Elliot, Eva, Alison J. Watson, and Ursula Harries. “Harnessing expertise: involving peer interviewers in qualitative research with hard to reach populations.” Health Expectations Vol. 5 No. 2 (June 2002), pp. 172-178.